Technical rationality is a useful model for practice when situations are simple and straightforward and where the same solution can be expected to work in every instance. Inside the Learning Society, London: Cassell. However, when we take reflection in and on action together it does appear that Schon has hit upon something significant. Acknowledgement: The picture of The Reflective Practitioner is by .nele and is reproduced here under a Creative Commons licence (Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 Generic) – flickr Schon’s central argument was that ‘change’ was a fundamental feature of modern life and that it is necessary to develop social systems that could learn and adapt. Double-loop learning occurs when error is detected and corrected in ways that involve the modification of an organization’s underlying norms, policies and objectives. Problems of choice or decision are solved through the selection, from available means, of the one best ... Donald A. Schön: The reflective practitioner Læring i teams . This paper examines technical rationality in Schön’s theory of reflective practice and argues that its critique is a broad and often overlooked epistemological underpinning in this work. While he does look at values and interpretative systems, it is the idea of repertoire that comes to the fore. In other words, it is not longer necessary to go through the entire learning circle in order to develop the theory further. world of practitioners Schön (1983) noticed a tendency of what he labelled ‘technical rationality’, the idea that practice should strictly follow positivistic notions of natural scientific measurement and method. Double-loop learning, in contrast, ‘involves questioning the role of the framing and learning systems which underlie actual goals and strategies’ (op. cit). Schön, D. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner , San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Schön (1987) defined technical rationality as holding that practitioners are instrumental problem solvers, London: Routledge/ Open University Press . : 26). This is a great pity. Usher et. Schön proceeds to criticize Simon and feature his own theory of design thinking. The pattern of diffusion is systems transformation. There: education was not a segregated activity, conducted for certain hours, in certain places, at a certain time of life. This was an important distinction and is very helpful when exploring questions around professional and organizational practice (see Chris Argyris and theories of action for a full treatment of this area). This paper examines technical rationality in Schön's theory of reflective practice and argues that its critique is a broad and often overlooked epistemological underpinning in this work. Moreover, learning isn’t simply something that is individual. In many respects, we could not ask for a better rationale for Peter Senge’s later championship of the Fifth Discipline (systemic thinking) in the generation of learning organizations. From the perspective of Technical Rationality, professional practice is a process of problem solving. : 165). Was available at : 45-6). Reflection: a flawed strategy for the nursing profession. Technical rational models are usually thought of as administrative tools like routines, structures, plans, and systems. In this we can see the significance of networks, flexibility, feedback and organizational transformation. It is, rather, to see the unfamiliar, unique situation as both similar to and different from the familiar one, without at first being able to say similar or different with respect to what. The impact of Donald Schon’s work on reflective practice has been significant – with many training and education programmes for teachers and informal educators adopting his core notions both in organizing experiences and in the teaching content. On this page we review his achievements and focus on three elements of his thinking: learning systems (and learning societies and institutions); double-loop and organizational learning (arising out of his collaboration with Chris Argyris); and the relationship of reflection-in-action to professional activity. Single-loop learning is like a thermostat that learns when it is too hot of too cold and turns the heat on or off. The words we use to convey what we, do or what we would like others to think we do, can then be called espoused theory. Belief in the stable state, he suggests, is belief in ‘the unchangeability, the constancy of central aspects of our lives, or belief that we can attain such a constancy’ (Schon 1973: 9). (1933) How We Think, New York: D. C. Heath. His work was quickly, and enthusiastically, taken up by a large number of people involved in the professional development of educators, and a number of other professional groupings.