In what is now Penn Treaty Park, the founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn, is said to have entered into a treaty of peace in 1683 with the native Lenape Turtle Clan under a picturesque elm tree immortalized in a painting by Benjamin West. Just to the west of the tree is a small elm from a cutting made in 1979. The American elm is a deciduous hermaphroditic tree which, before the introduction of DED, commonly grew to more than 100 feet (30 m) tall with a trunk whose diameter at breast height was more than 4 feet (1.2 m), supporting a high, spreading umbrella-like canopy. [62], New York City's Central Park is home to approximately 1,200 American elms, which constitute over half of all trees in the park. Wetland Status. Ulmus americana, generally known as the American elm or, less commonly, as the white elm or water elm,[a] is a species of elm native to eastern North America, naturally occurring from Nova Scotia west to Alberta and Montana, and south to Florida and central Texas. Living trees are susceptible to Dutch elm disease. An infusion of the bark has been taken by pregnant women to secure stability of children. 199 inches in circumference and 90 feet tall. FYI: I receive a commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc. Insignificant small green flowers appear in spring before the foliage emerges. I have some 5ftx12ft long slabs of elm I milled. Next to oak, its the most prolific tree on my e. Texas farm. Fine furnituremakers called on elm, too, but in the form of burl veneer from a species growing in Europe's Carpathian Mountains. Wheelwrights fashioned wheel hubs from nothing but the rugged elm, and then used it to floor long-lasting wagon beds. The species attains its greatest growth potential in the Northeastern US, while elms in the Deep South and Texas grow much smaller and have shorter lifespans, although conversely their survival rate in the latter regions is higher owing to the climate being less favorable to the spread of DED. It has been estimated that only approximately 1 in 100,000 American elm trees is DED-tolerant, most known survivors simply having escaped exposure to the disease. [39], The American elm's wood is coarse, hard, and tough, with interlacing, contorted fibers that make it difficult to split or chop, and cause it to warp after sawing. American Elm is wholly insensitive to daylight length (photoperiod), and will continue to grow well into autumn until injured by frost. The Indians once made canoes out of American elm trunks, and early settlers would steam the wood so it could be bent to make barrels and wheel hoops. Finishes beautifully, especially using darker colors. There is a notable grove of old-growth American elm trees in Manhattan's Central Park. West Hartford Elm - Large American elm in West Hartford, Connecticut (May 2017). Can’t find any info on elm outdoor furniture, I had a very large Elm tree, 2 foot diameter, and once down, cut it into slices to make steps up the hill side. However, I have seen a number of lone American Elm trees still surviving from the Chicago area to the Philadelphia area, including Delaware. However, the condition is far less serious, and afflicted trees should recover the following year. A few specimens have been found in association with cultural settings, but it is not known if these populations are native or escaped. [35], Thousands of attempts to cross the American elm with the Siberian elm U. pumila failed. [9] Later, with the advent of mechanical sawing, American elm wood was used for barrel staves, trunk-slats, and hoop-poles, and subsequently became fundamental to the manufacture of wooden automobile bodies, with the intricate fibers holding screws unusually well. [29] The United States National Arboretum released 'Valley Forge' and 'New Harmony' in late 1995, after screening tests performed in 1992–1993 showed both had unusually high levels of resistance to DED. For drawer fronts I like to use elm because of its beautiful grain. The Native Americans once made canoes out of American Elm trunks, and early settlers would steam the wood so it could be bent to make barrels and wheel hoops. as does basswood. [64], Several rows of American elm trees that the National Park Service first planted during the 1930s line much of the 1.9 miles (3.0 km) length of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. DED first appeared on the trees during the 1950s and reached a peak in the 1970s. Consequently, large and mature American Elms are  uncommon. Scans/Pictures: Shown below is a piece of lumber from a small tree that was killed by Dutch elm disease. American elm (Ulmus americana) is a large tree widely known for its vase-like shape and rounded, multi-branched crown atop a thick, powerful trunk. Once extensively used as a street and lawn tree. American elm, Old Deerfield, Massachusetts (2011). Dutch elm disease (DED) is a fungal disease that has ravaged the American elm, causing catastrophic die-offs in cities across the range. Add-ons. The NPS used a number of methods to control the epidemic, including sanitation, pruning, injecting trees with fungicide and replanting with DED-resistant cultivars. Lafayette Street, Salem, Massachusetts: 'high-tunnel effect' of U. americana avenues once common in New England (colorized postcard, 1910). The American elm is an extremely hardy tree that can withstand winter temperatures as low as −42 °C (−44 °F). Funny that you mention Texas-grown American Elms. Native American tribes found a variety of uses for slippery elm, which they passed on to early colonists. American Elm is scarce because it is attacked and killed by Dutch Elm Disease, which has wiped most of them out. It weighs 40lb per cubic foot and is harvested commercially for flooring, wheel hubs, cooperage, agricultural implements and many other uses[46, 61, 82, 149, 171, 226, 227]. I’m a hobby woodworker, so I’m always interested in getting trees sawed into lumber. Splinting even w/a power splitter is very difficult. (2017). According to North Dakota State University, farmers use elm trees to build windbreaks or shelterbelts, … But makes good handles, bends but won’t break. Responds well to steam bending, and holds nails and screws well. To hockey fans, elm is their favorite wood, as most hockey sticks are made of elm. Traductions en contexte de "American elm" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : It hangs from what is believed to be its original yoke, made from American elm. 'Valley Forge' performed especially well in these tests. American elm at Phillips Academy, Andover, MA (May 2020). American elm twigs have a zigzag pattern and slightly flattened buds. After 20 years of research, American scientists first developed DED-resistant strains of elms in the late 1990s.[18]. American Elm is especially susceptible to Dutch elm disease, and was ravaged by the fungal disease in the second half of the twentieth century. With Dutch Elm disease, things have become complicated. They are smaller, different type of leaf and seem to have a pretty short life span, maybe 35 to 40 years. Elms do not naturally form pure stands and trees used in landscaping were grown from a handful of cultivars, causing extremely low genetic diversity. Today, the wood that can be found is used mainly for making furniture. U. americana is also the most susceptible of all the elms to verticillium wilt,[17] whose external symptoms closely mimic those of DED. [56][57], Another notable American elm, named Herbie, was the tallest American elm in New England until it was cut down on January 19, 2010, after it succumbed to DED. A large specimen, which stands on Summer Street in the Berkshire County town of Lanesborough, Massachusetts, has been kept alive by antifungal treatments. It was also used for the rockers on rocking chairs. I have a mature American Elm that is dying of Dutch Elm. Common Uses: Boxes, baskets, furniture, hockey sticks, veneer, wood pulp, and papermaking. Before the onset of Dutch elm disease, American elm was one of the most common street and shade trees across much of the United States. They are still out there and get to good size, but are usually only available after they are dead. [53], George Washington's Elm, Washington, D.C. George Washington supposedly had a favorite spot under an elm tree near the United States Capitol Building from which he would watch construction of the building. Thus far, plantings of these four varieties generally appear to be successful. Many are cultivated for their height and attractive foliage. [61] Despite protests from Ottawa area environmentalists and resistance from Opposition Members of Parliament the tree was removed in April 2019 to make way for new Centre Block renovations. The perfect flowers are small, purple-brown and, being wind-pollinated, apetalous. [citation needed], The American elm is particularly susceptible to disease because the period of infection often coincides with the period, approximately 30 days, of rapid terminal growth when new springwood vessels are fully functional. Girth 15 ft at 4.5 ft above ground; height 83 ft; spread 75 ft. American elms, Central Park, Manhattan, New York City (Spring 2011). American elm is also moderately preferred for feeding and reproduction by the adult elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola[15] and highly preferred for feeding by the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica[16] in the United States. In North America, the species most commonly planted was the American elm (Ulmus americana), which had unique properties that made it ideal for such use: rapid growth, adaptation to a broad range of climates and soils, strong wood, resistance to wind damage, and … E L M Slippery elm, Ulmus rubraMuhl, has been recorded in Franklin and York counties, but these records are histori-cal. Special Uses of course the smell won’t be as strong as when cutting but you can still get a whiff !!!!!!!! It was also used for the rockers on rocking chairs. The current United States national champion American elm tree is located in Iberville Parish, Louisiana. [32], In 1993, Mariam B. Sticklen and James L. Sherald reported the results of NPS-funded experiments conducted at Michigan State University in East Lansing that were designed to apply genetic engineering techniques to the development of DED-resistant strains of American elm trees. These include such butterflies as the Eastern Comma (Polygonia comma), Question Mark (Polygonia interrogationis), Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa), Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui) and Red-spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax), as well as such moths as the Columbian Silkmoth (Hyalophora columbia) and the Banded Tussock Moth (Pale Tiger Moth) (Halysidota tessellaris).[13]. In the 19th and early 20th century, American elm was a common street and park tree owing to its tolerance of urban conditions, rapid growth, and graceful form. Girth 18 ft at 4.5 ft above ground; est. It lacks durability, warps, and splits badly in seasoning [ 44 ]. [34] By 2013, researchers in both New York State and North Carolina were conducting field trials of genetically engineered DED-resistant American elms. Glues, stains, and finishes well. Trees in areas unaffected by Dutch elm disease (DED) can live for several hundred years. Supplemental water applications benefit the tree during periods of drought. Then known as the Survivor Tree, it became an important part of the Oklahoma City National Memorial, and is featured prominently on the official logo of the memorial. Herbie was 110 feet (34 m) tall at its peak and had a circumference of 20.3 feet (6.2 m), or a diameter of approximately 6.5 feet (2.0 m). For example, they mixed slippery elm bark with water to create eye washes and teas to soothe sore eyes and throats and drink as a natural laxative, per the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Moreover, several triploid trees known only in cultivation, such as 'Jefferson', are possessed of a high degree of resistance to DED, which ravaged American elms in the 20th century. It usually grows from 60 to 80 feet tall with a crown two-thirds as great. However, a study published in 2011 by the Agricultural Research Service of the USDA revealed that about 20% of wild American elms are diploid and may even constitute another species. Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Washington Arch, Spring' [1893], Frederick Childe Hassam, 'Church at Old Lyme' [1905], Frederick Childe Hassam, 'The East Hampton Elms in May' [1920], American elm avenue, New Haven, Connecticut (1901), Thomas Meehan and Sons catalogue, Phillips Academy Elm, Andover, MA (November 2019). Negrón JF, Witcoski JJ, Cain JJ, LaBonte JR, Duerr DA II, McElwe SJ, Lee JC, Seybold SJ (2005). Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Elm  in the Ulmus genus has been reported as a sensitizer. having double the usual number of chromosomes, making it unique within the genus. WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : The wood of American elm is coarse-grained, heavy, and strong. This plant has no children Legal Status. Girth 17 ft; height 80 ft. "The Grayson Elm" in Amherst, Massachusetts in summer (2017). For over 80 years, U. americana had been identified as a tetraploid, i.e. It is known to have been planted along the Avenue of Honour at Ballarat, Victoria and the Avenue of Honour in Bacchus Marsh, Victoria. It’s one of the largest trees in Eastern Canada, with heights of up to 125' and diameters of up to 7'. If they are alive, most people prefer to leave them standing because they have a nice shape. Many disease-resistant cultivars and hybrids are being used to replace trees killed by Dutch elm disease. The Washington Elm, Cambridge, Massachusetts. The nobility and arching grace of the American Elm in its heyday, on farms, in villages, in towns and on campuses, were celebrated in the books of photographs of Wallace Nutting (Massachusetts Beautiful, N.Y. 1923, and other volumes in the series) and of Samuel Chamberlain (The New England Image, New York, 1962). Base is uneven. Introduced to the UK by James Gordon[3] in 1752, the American elm was noted to be far more susceptible to insect foliage damage than native elms. It also survives low desert heat at Phoenix, Arizona. The 65-foot-tall (20 m) tree had a trunk circumference of 24 feet (7.3 m) and a crown spread of 180 feet (55 m). Ulmus americana L. – American elm Subordinate Taxa. Spores introduced outside of this period remain largely static within the xylem and are thus relatively ineffective. Ulmus americana, generally known as the American elm or, less commonly, as the white elm or water elm, is a species of elm native to eastern North America, naturally occurring from Nova Scotia west to Alberta and Montana, and south to Florida and central Texas. I’m in central Virginia. That tree remains on the campus of the Washington State Capitol. Croix', and a set of six different clones collectively known as 'American Liberty'. The American elm was the most popular tree to plant in the booming cities of the 19th century, so that by the 20th century many streets were lined with only elms and were shaded in summer by a cathedral-like ceiling of their branches. When growing in the open, the trunk divides near the base into several large limbs which arch outward, resulting in an attractive, vase-shaped silhouette. The fruit is a flat samara 2 cm long by 1.5 cm broad, with a circular papery wing surrounding the single 4–5 mm seed. I’ve read that it’s very hard to split, so not going to use for firewood. This suggests that the diploid parent trees, which have markedly smaller cells than the tetraploid, may too be highly resistant to the disease.[4][5]. I have dated one healthy specimen to over 80 years old! The wood of American elm is very hard and was a valuable timber tree used for lumber, furniture and veneer. The wood is very durable in water. Maybe it varies. Justin, Wide boards would be great for making tool chests! [40] The Olmsted-designed park system in Buffalo, NY[41] did not fare as well. Its toughness and flexibility also make it … [30] In 2007, the 'Elm Recovery Project'[31] from the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada, reported that cuttings from healthy surviving old elms surveyed across Ontario had been grown to produce a bank of resistant trees, isolated for selective breeding of highly resistant cultivars. Click or tap “complete claim” to fill out the interest form . [55], In 1896, an alumnus of the University of Washington, obtained a rooted cutting of the Cambridge tree and sent it to Professor Edmund Meany at the university. Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light to medium reddish brown. Same American elm, Old Deerfield, Massachusetts (2012). Mark 757-650-1946, We have a few American Elm’s around but I don’t see a listing for what I’ve been told are Chinese or Russian elm. [50], The Liberty Tree, an elm on Boston Common in Boston, Massachusetts, was a rallying point for the growing resistance to the rule of England over the American colonies.[51]. Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification, Bow Woods (from a mathematical perspective), Brazilian Rosewood, East Indian, and Other Rosewoods, Genuine Lignum Vitae and Argentine Lignum Vitae, BOOK: WOOD! American elm, Massachusetts (2013), with octopus-like limbs. West made the tree, already a local landmark, famous by incorporating it into his painting after hearing legends (of unknown veracity) about the tree being the location of the treaty. American elm is a small to medium-sized (to very large) tree, at maturity with spreading branches forming a broad-spreading, fan-shaped crown. Dutch elm disease, which is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi through its transmission by the elm bark beetle, has changed that. The American elm is a tall shade tree with a canopy spread of 40 to 75 feet. American elm tree in Cummington, Massachusetts (August 2020). Endgrain: Ring-porous; large to very large earlywood pores in a continuous row one or two pores wide, small latewood pores in wavy bands; tyloses occasionally present in earlywood; growth rings distinct; parenchyma vasicentric and confluent; medium rays, spacing normal. Because the tree is fast … [48] The tree replaced on the Register a larger champion located in Woodvale Cemetery in Sussex, England, which in 1988 had a height of 27 metres (89 ft) and a diameter of 115 centimetres (45 in) (circumference of 361 centimetres (142 in)).[49]. [42] In Akron, Ohio there is a very old elm tree that has not been infected. [11] A sugar maple-ironwood-American elm cover type occurs on some hilltops near Témiscaming, Quebec. The NPS combated the disease's local insect vector, the smaller European elm bark beetle (Scolytus multistriatus), by trapping and by spraying with insecticides. As in the closely related European White Elm Ulmus laevis, the flowers and seeds are borne on 1–3 cm long stems. Once a very popular and long-lived (300+ years) shade and street tree, American elm suffered a dramatic decline with the introduction of Dutch elm disease, a fungus spread by a bark beetle. [53] The tree was cut down (or fell—sources differ) in October 1920 after an expert determined it was dead. Although intensive feeding by elm bark beetles can kill weakened trees,[14] their main impact is as vectors of DED. The largest surviving urban forest of American elms in North America is believed to be in the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, where close to 200,000 elms remain. There are 30 to 40 species of elm that originate from central Asia. [36] Attempts at the Arnold Arboretum using ten other American, European and Asiatic species also ended in failure, attributed to the differences in ploidy and operational dichogamy,[6] although the ploidy factor has been discounted by other authorities.[37]. The elm stood near the Senate wing of the Capitol building until 1948. The tree stood in Yarmouth, Maine, where it was cared for by the town's tree warden, Frank Knight. A prime example of the species was the Sauble Elm,[3] which grew beside the banks of the Sauble River in Ontario, Canada, to a height of 43 m (140 ft), with a d.b.h of 196 cm (6.43 ft) before succumbing to DED; when it was felled in 1968, a tree-ring count established that it had germinated in 1701. Its wood has a high moisture … The Chinese called elm yümu, and worked it into utilitarian furniture that would take abuse. The American elm is a tall tree with a long root system that expands past the drip line. Common Uses: Boxes, baskets, furniture, hockey sticks, veneer, wood pulp, and papermaking. A part of New York City's urban ecology, the elms improve air and water quality, reduce erosion and flooding, and decrease air temperatures during warm days. [22][23] Introduced to Australasia, the tree was listed by Australian nurseries in the early 20th century. [63], While the stand is still vulnerable to DED, in the 1980s the Central Park Conservancy undertook aggressive countermeasures such as heavy pruning and removal of extensively diseased trees. The cutting was planted, cuttings were then taken from it, including one planted on February 18, 1932, the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington, for whom Washington state is named. [citation needed], In the United States, the American elm is a principal member of four major forest cover types: black ash-American elm-red maple; silver maple-American elm; sugarberry-American elm-green ash; and sycamore-sweetgum-American elm, with the first two of these types also occurring in Canada. I have been making tool boxes and cabinets from oak and ash. The American elm is the state tree of Massachusetts and North Dakota. Surviving American elm "street tree" in western Massachusetts (2016). The trees, whose maintenance the National Park Service (NPS) manages, remain healthy and are thriving. Thanks ~Mike. Elm, genus of about 35 species of forest and ornamental shade trees, native primarily to north temperate areas. Comments: Once one of the largest and most prevalent of the North American elm species, preferred as an ideal shade tree for urban roadsides. Wood from the tree was made into furniture, canes, walking sticks and various trinkets that Philadelphians kept as relics. [19], The American elm's biology in some ways has helped to spare it from obliteration by DED, in contrast to what happened to the American chestnut with the chestnut blight. American elm, also referred to as white elm, is a tall tree (up to 80 feet). Interlocking grain is right!! The disease-resistant selections made available to the public to date include 'Valley Forge', 'New Harmony', 'Princeton', 'Jefferson', 'Lewis & Clark', 'Miller Park', 'St. Workability: Can be a challenge to work because of interlocked grain, especially on quartersawn surfaces. Old American elm in Halifax Public Gardens, Nova Scotia, Canada (August 2019). Introductions across the Atlantic rarely prospered, even before the outbreak of DED. Rutgers University has preserved 55 mature elms on and in the vicinity of Voorhees Mall on the College Avenue Campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey in addition to seven disease-resistant trees that have been planted in this area of the campus in recent years.[44]. American elm (Ulmus americana), also known as white elm, water elm, soft elm, or Florida elm, is most notable for its susceptibility to the wilt fungus, Ceratocystis ulmi. However, elms can assume many different sizes and forms depending on the location and climate zone. The American elm is highly susceptible to DED and elm yellows. Rows of American elm trees lining the sides of a path traversing the length of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. (April 2010). Would it help to coat it in anything like Thompson’s water seal or shellac or varnish? American elm tree in Adams, Massachusetts (August 2020). American elm, Hatfield, Massachusetts (2020). Girth 16 ft, 3 inches at 4.5 ft above ground; height 74 ft; spread 97 ft. American elm in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada (August 2019). Measurements taken at the time showed it to have a circumference of 24 feet (7.3 m), and its age was estimated to be 280 years. Measurements as of November 2019: girth 17.5 ft, 11 in at 4.5 ft above ground; height 86 ft; spread 87 ft. American Elm in Massachusetts (June 2012). American elm at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire (June 2015). I have several good sized (60′) American Elms in my yard ready to cut, been dying and dead past 3 years… Thinking about having them Quartered and cut into wide planks. Copyright © 2008-2020 Eric Meier | All Rights Reserved. No subspecies or varieties are currently recognized within the species. Because the tree is fast growing and bears seeds at a young age, it has been able to continue in areas where older trees have died, though the newer elms also succumb to the disease at a relatively young age. In North America, there are three species of elm bark beetles: one native, Hylurgopinus rufipes ("native elm bark beetle"); and two invasive, Scolytus multistriatus ("smaller European elm bark beetle") and Scolytus schevyrewi ("banded elm bark beetle"). … The wood is used in the manufacture of boxes, baskets, crates, barrels, furniture, agricultural implements, and caskets. Medicinal use of American Elm: An infusion made from the bark has been used in the treatment of bleeding from the lungs, ruptures, coughs, colds, influenza, dysentery, eye infections, cramps and diarrhoea. [9], Young twigs and branchlets of the American elm have tough, fibrous bark that has been used as a tying and binding material, even for rope swings for children, and also for making whips.[9]. George Washington is said to have taken command of the American Continental Army under the Washington Elm in Cambridge on July 3, 1775. Girth 13 ft at 4.5 ft above ground; Height 70 ft; Spread 75 ft. American elm in front of the Florence K. Murray Courthouse in Newport, Rhode Island (August 2015). I was thinking of making an outdoor sign for my company. Elms have been able to survive and to reproduce in areas where the disease had eliminated old trees, although most of these young elms eventually succumb to the disease at a relatively young age. There is some reason to hope that these elms will preserve the genetic diversity of the original population, and that they eventually will hybridize with DED-resistant varieties that have been developed or that occur naturally. Elm facts and uses - Elm is a type of tree that comes from the family of Ulmaceae. When measured in 2010, the tree had a trunk circumference of 324 inches (820 cm), a height of 111 feet (34 m) and an average crown spread of 79 feet (24 m). Large American elm in New Haven, Connecticut (June 2017). Such injections generally are effective as a preventive measure for up to three years when performed before any symptoms have appeared, but may be ineffective once the disease is evident. In addition, a heritage-listed planting of American elms can be found along Grant Crescent in Griffith, Australian Capital Territory. Remove dead, damaged and crossing branches. For example, in Central Park and Tompkins Square Park in New York City, stands of several large elms originally planted by Frederick Law Olmsted survive because of their isolation from neighboring areas in New York where there had been heavy mortality. Herbie's wood is of interest to dendroclimatologists, who will use cross-sections of the trunk to help answer questions about climate during the tree's lifetime. American elm tree in a park in Pittsfield, Massachusetts (August 2020). I get good results this way with Texas grown American elm that has been apparently unaffected by the Dutch elm disease. Other artificial hybridizations with American elm are rare, and now regarded with suspicion. Overview Information American elder is a plant. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK. American elm tree in Springfield, Massachusetts, which survived the tornado that touched down in this part of the city in 2011 (June 2020). In 2005, approximately 90 'Princeton' elms were planted along Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House in Washington, D.C. This tree died in 2017. I read that it is not durable outside, but is there a way to make them last longer? It’s a monster to split this wood for firewood. A Harvard "professor of plant anatomy" examined the tree rings days after the tree was felled and pronounced it between 204 and 210 years old, making it at most 62 years old when Washington took command of the troops at Cambridge. nice website, thanks, (This is a monthly update, and your email will be kept private.). Grant Crescent, Griffith, Australian Capital Territory, Australia: American elms in autumn. I have dozens of mature American Elms as well as hundreds of younger ones in North Texas. Whittemore, A. [60], The Parliament Hill Elm was planted in Ottawa, Canada, in the late 1910s or early 1920s when Centre Block was rebuilt following the Great fire of 1916. These efforts have largely been successful in saving the majority of the trees, although several are still lost each year. Elms in forest and other natural areas have been less affected by DED than trees in urban environments due to lower environmental stress from pollution and soil compaction and due to occurring in smaller, more isolated populations. With its majestic, vase-shaped form accentuated by long, drooping branches, American elm is one of New England's most beautiful trees and was once a ubiquitous and monumental street tree in most towns. Grant Crescent, Griffith, Australian Capital Territory, Australia: American elms in winter. It grows well along roads or railroad tracks, and in abandoned lots and other disturbed areas, where it is highly tolerant of most stress factors. Other large or otherwise significant American elm trees have included: The Treaty Elm, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It held up just fine. You can contact me at my email MMJ8197@gmail.com. It has an attractive grain that resembles Ash. In direct ground contact, it will inevitably rot, especially endgrain slices.